Copyright 2003
Coaching Pitchers
By Michael G. Marshall, Ph.D.

     Chapter Twenty-Four:   Research Findings

     When I started, I laboriously analyzed the data by hand.   I counted every one of the pitches, batters and so on.   While this procedure required considerable time, I felt as though I understood the data.   I wanted to know what pitches worked against what batters.   I did not want to pitch only from instinct, I wanted to quantify my successes and failures.

         a.   My 1971 Major League Season

     Throughout my 1971 Montreal Expo season, I carefully recorded every pitch that I threw to every hitter.   In 66 games, I pitched 111 innings, walked 50 hitters, gave up 100 hits, struck out 85 for a 4.30 earned run average.   From the game-by-game raw data sheets, I compiled my 1971 report.

                                                      1971 Report
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                       General Information
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01.  Batters/innings:             466/111.1 = 4.19 batters per inning
02.  Pitches/innings:            1645/111.1 = 14.8 pitches per inning
03.  LH batters/batters:            226/466 = 48.5% LH batters
04.  RH batters/batters:            240/466 = 51.5% RH batters
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                   General Pitch-Type Information
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05.  Fastballs/pitches:            542/1645 = 32.9% fastballs
06.  Sliders/pitches:              618/1645 = 37.6% sliders
07.  Screwballs/pitches:           485/1645 = 29.5% screwballs
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08.  Fastball strikes/fastballs:   363/542 = 67.0% fastball strikes
09.  LH bat FB strikes/LH bat FB:  185/285 = 64.9% LH batter FB strikes
10.  RH bat FB strikes/RH bat FB:  178/257 = 69.3% RH batter FB strikes
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11.  Slider strikes/sliders:       403/618 = 65.2% slider strikes
12.  LH bat SL strikes/LH bat SL:  187/272 = 68.8% LH batter SL strikes
13.  RH bat SL strikes/RH bat SL:  216/346 = 62.4% RH batter SL strikes
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14.  Screwball strikes/screwballs: 261/485 = 53.8% screwball strikes
15.  LH bat SC strikes/LH bat SC:  143/258 = 55.4% LH batter SC strikes
16.  RH bat SC strikes/RH bat SC:  118/227 = 52.0% RH batter SC strikes
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    Left and Right-Handed Batter By Pitch-Type Hit Result Information
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17.  Fastball singles/singles:       30/68 = 44.1% fastball singles
18.  Slider singles/singles:         28/68 = 41.2% slider singles
19.  Screwball singles/singles:      10/68 = 14.7% screwball singles
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20.  LH bat FB singles/LH bat singles: 13/27 = 48.1% LH bat FB singles
21.  LH bat SL singles/LH bat singles:  9/27 = 33.3% LH bat SL singles
22.  LH bat SC singles/LH bat singles:  5/27 = 18.5% LH bat SC singles
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23.  RH bat FB singles/RH bat singles: 17/41 = 41.5% RH bat FB singles
24.  RH bat SL singles/RH bat singles: 19/41 = 46.3% RH bat SL singles
25.  RH bat SC singles/RH bat singles:  5/41 = 12.2% RH bat SC singles
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26.  Extra base hits/hits:             31/99 = 31.3% Extra base hits
27.  LH bat EBH/LH bat hits:           19/46 = 41.3% LH bat EBH
28.  RH bat EBH/RH bat hits:           12/53 = 22.6% RH bat EBH
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29.  Fastball extra base hits/EBH:     10/31 = 32.2% fastball EBH
30.  Slider extra base hits/EBH:       13/31 = 41.9% slider EBH
31.  Screwball extra base hits/EBH:     8/31 = 25.8% screwball EBH
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32.  LH bat FB EBH/LH bat EBH:          6/19 = 31.6% LH bat FB EBH
33.  LH bat SL EBH/LH bat EBH:          8/19 = 42.1% LH bat SL EBH
34.  LH bat SC EBH/LH bat EBH:          5/19 = 26.3% LH bat SC EBH
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35.  RH bat FB EBH/RH bat EBH:          4/12 = 33.3% RH bat FB EBH
36.  RH bat SL EBH/RH bat EBH:          5/12 = 41.7% RH bat SL EBH
37.  RH bat SC EBH/RH bat EBH:          3/12 = 25.0% RH bat SC EBH
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  Left and Right-Handed Batter By Pitch-Type Non-Hit Result Information
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38.  Base on Balls/Batters:        35/466 = 07.11% Base on Balls
39.  LH bat Base on Balls/LH bat:  18/226 = 07.96% LH Base on Balls
40.  RH bat Base on Balls/RH bat:  17/240 = 07.08% RH bat Base on Balls
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41.  Int Base on Balls/Batters:    12/466 = 02.58% Int Base on Balls
42.  LH bat IBB/LH bat:             2/226 = 00.88% LH bat IBB
43.  RH bat IBB/RH bat:            10/240 = 04.17% RH bat IBB
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44.  Hit By Pitch/Batters:          4/466 = 00.86% Hit By Pitch
45.  LH bat HBP/LH bat:             3/226 = 01.33% LH bat HBP
46.  RH bat HBP/RH bat:             1/240 = 00.42% RH bat HBP
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47.  Sac Bunt/Batters:              8/466 = 01.72% Sac Bunt
48.  LH bat Sac Bunt/LH bat:        3/226 = 01.33% LH bat Sac Bunt
49.  RH bat Sac Bunt/RH bat:        5/240 = 02.08% RH bat Sac Bunt
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50.  Sac Fly/Batters:               2/466 = 00.43% Sac Fly
51.  LH bat Sac Fly/LH bat:         1/226 = 00.44% LH bat Sac Fly
52.  RH bat Sac Fly/RH bat:         1/240 = 00.42% RH bat Sac Fly
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            Left and Right-Handed Hitter Batting Averages
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53.  LH bat hits/LH official AB:   46/199 = .231 LH batting average
54.  RH bat hits/RH official AB:   53/205 = .259 RH batting average
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                       Pitch-Type Success Results
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55.  Fastball outs/outs:          101/313 = 32.3% fastball outs
56.  Slider outs/outs:            116/313 = 37.1% slider outs
57.  Screwball outs/outs:          96/313 = 30.7% screwball outs
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58.  LH bat FB outs/LH bat outs:   47/153 = 30.7% LH batter FB outs
59.  LH bat SL outs/LH bat outs:   53/153 = 34.6% LH batter SL outs
60.  LH bat SC outs/LH bat outs:   53/153 = 34.6% LH batter SC outs
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61.  RH bat FB outs/RH bat outs:   54/160 = 33.8% RH batter FB outs
62.  RH bat SL outs/RH bat outs:   63/160 = 39.4% RH batter SL outs
63.  RH bat SC outs/RH bat outs:   43/160 = 26.9% RH batter SC outs
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64.  FB strikeouts/strikeouts:      32/84 = 38.1% fastball strikeouts
65.  SL strikeouts/strikeouts:      12/84 = 14.3% slider strikeouts
66.  SC strikeouts/strikeouts:      40/84 = 47.6% screwball strikeouts
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67.  LH bat FB Ks/LH bat Ks:      16/39 = 41.0% LH batter FB Ks
68.  LH bat SL Ks/LH bat Ks:       2/39 =  5.1% LH batter SL Ks
69.  LH bat SC Ks/LH bat Ks:      21/39 = 53.8% LH batter SC Ks
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70.  RH bat FB Ks/RH bat Ks:      16/45 = 35.6% RH batter FB Ks
71.  RH bat SL Ks/RH bat Ks:      10/45 = 22.2% RH batter SL Ks
72.  RH bat SC Ks/RH bat Ks:      19/45 = 42.2% RH batter SC Ks
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     From this analysis, I pulled out several valuable findings:

01.   I threw 32.9% fastballs.
02.   I threw 67.0% fastball strikes.
03.   I threw 37.6% sliders.
04.   I threw 65.2% slider strikes.
05.   I threw 29.5% screwballs.
06.   I threw 53.8% screwball strikes.
07.   Extra base hits comprised 31.3% of all hits.
08.   Left-handed hitters batted .231.
09.   Right-handed hitters batted .259.

     Screwballs achieved great results.   However, I only threw 53.8% screwball strikes.   I had to improve my screwball strike percentage.   Therefore, during the 1971-1972 off-season, I biomechanically analyzed my pitching motion.   During the same high speed 16 mm filming in which I filmed me throwing the fastball that I analyzed in Chapter Two, I also filmed me throwing my screwball.

     I learned that I had a good release with a good spin axis and spin velocity that resulted in good movement and an unpredictable decrease in horizontal velocity.   However, I also learned that I did not have a straight driveline from leverage through release.   Therefore, during that off-season, I worked every day to adjust my screwball driveline.

         b.   My 1972 Major League Season

     Throughout my 1972 Montreal Expo season, I again carefully recorded every pitch that I threw to every hitter.   In 65 games, I pitched 116 innings, walked 47 hitters, gave up 82 hits, struck out 95 for a 1.78 earned run average.   From the game-by-game raw data sheets, I compiled my 1972 report.

                                                         1972 Report
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                        General Information
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01.  Batters/innings:            468/115.2 = 4.06 batters per inning
02.  Pitches/innings:           1635/115.2 = 14.2 pitches per inning
03.  LH batters/batters:           202/468 = 43.2% LH batters
04.  RH batters/batters:           266/468 = 56.8% RH batters
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                   General Pitch-Type Information
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05.  Fastballs/pitches:           491/1635 = 30.0% fastballs
06.  Sliders/pitches:             337/1635 = 20.6% sliders
07.  Screwballs/pitches:          807/1635 = 49.4% screwballs
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08.  Fastball strikes/fastballs:   316/491 = 64.4% fastball strikes
09.  LH bat FB strikes/LH bat FB:  134/212 = 63.2% LH batter FB strikes
10.  RH bat FB strikes/RH bat FB:  182/279 = 65.2% RH batter FB strikes
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11.  Slider strikes/sliders:       235/337 = 69.7% slider strikes
12.  LH bat SL strikes/LH bat SL:   79/113 = 69.9% LH batter SL strikes
13.  RH bat SL strikes/RH bat SL:  156/224 = 69.6% RH batter SL strikes
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14.  Screwball strikes/screwballs: 508/807 = 62.9% screwball strikes
15.  LH bat SC strikes/LH bat SC:  245/406 = 60.3% LH batter SC strikes
16.  RH bat SC strikes/RH bat SC:  263/401 = 65.6% RH batter SC strikes
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     Left and Right-Handed Batter By Pitch-Type Hit Result Information
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17.  Fastball singles/singles:         18/68 = 26.5% fastball singles
18.  Slider singles/singles:           20/68 = 29.4% slider singles
19.  Screwball singles/singles:        30/68 = 44.1% screwball singles
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20.  LH bat FB singles/LH bat singles:  7/24 = 29.2% LH bat FB singles
21.  LH bat SL singles/LH bat singles:  8/24 = 33.3% LH bat SL singles
22.  LH bat SC singles/LH bat singles:  9/24 = 37.5% LH bat SC singles
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23.  RH bat FB singles/RH bat singles:  11/44 = 25.0% RH bat FB singles
24.  RH bat SL singles/RH bat singles:  12/44 = 27.3% RH bat SL singles
25.  RH bat SC singles/RH bat singles:  21/44 = 47.7% RH bat SC singles
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26.  Extra base hits/hits:              14/82 = 17.1% Extra base hits
27.  LH bat EBH/LH bat hits:             6/30 = 20.0% LH bat EBH
28.  RH bat EBH/RH bat hits:             8/52 = 15.4% RH bat EBH
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29.  Fastball extra base hits/EBH:       4/14 = 28.6% fastball EBH
30.  Slider extra base hits/EBH:         3/14 =  7.1% slider EBH
31.  Screwball extra base hits/EBH:      7/14 = 50.0% screwball EBH
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32.  LH bat FB EBH/LH bat EBH:            3/6 = 50.0% LH bat FB EBH
33.  LH bat SL EBH/LH bat EBH:            1/6 = 16.7% LH bat SL EBH
34.  LH bat SC EBH/LH bat EBH:            2/6 = 33.3% LH bat SC EBH
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35.  RH bat FB EBH/RH bat EBH:            1/8 = 12.5% RH bat FB EBH
36.  RH bat SL EBH/RH bat EBH:            2/8 = 25.0% RH bat SL EBH
37.  RH bat SC EBH/RH bat EBH:            5/8 = 62.5% RH bat SC EBH
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   Left and Right-Handed Batter By Pitch-Type Non-Hit Result Information
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38.  Base on Balls/Batters:        37/468 = 07.91% Base on Balls
39.  LH bat Base on Balls/LH bat:  20/202 = 09.90% LH bat Base on Balls
40.  RH bat Base on Balls/RH bat:  17/266 = 06.39% RH bat Base on Balls
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41.  Int Base on Balls/Batters:     7/468 = 01.50% Int Base on Balls
42.  LH bat IBB/LH bat:             6/202 = 02.97% LH bat IBB
43.  RH bat IBB/LH bat:             1/266 = 00.38% RH bat IBB
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44.  Hit By Pitch/Batters:          2/468 = 00.43% Hit By Pitch
45.  LH bat HBP/LH bat:             1/202 = 00.50% LH bat HBP
46.  RH bat HBP/RH bat:             1/266 = 00.38% RH bat HBP
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47.  Sac Bunt/Batters:              6/468 = 01.28% Sac Bunt
48.  LH bat Sac Bunt/LH bat:        0/202 = 00.00% LH bat Sac Bunt
49.  RH bat Sac Bunt/RH bat:        6/266 = 02.26% RH bat Sac Bunt
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50.  Sac Fly/Batters:               4/468 = 00.85% Sac Fly
51.  LH bat Sac Fly/LH bat:         0/202 = 00.00% LH bat Sac Fly
52.  RH bat Sac Fly/RH bat:         4/266 = 01.50% RH bat Sac Fly
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             Left and Right-Handed Batter Batting Averages
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53.  LH bat hits/LH official AB:   30/175 = .171 LH batting average
54.  RH bat hits/RH official AB:   52/237 = .219 RH batting average
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                      Pitch-Type Success Results
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55.  Fastball outs/outs:           79/332 = 24.0% fastball outs
56.  Slider outs/outs:             74/332 = 22.3% slider outs
57.  Screwball outs/outs:         189/332 = 56.9% screwball outs
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58.  LH bat FB outs/LH bat outs:   28/144 = 19.4% LH batter FB outs
59.  LH bat SL outs/LH bat outs:   23/144 = 16.0% LH batter SL outs
60.  LH bat SC outs/LH bat outs:   93/144 = 64.6% LH batter SC outs
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61.  RH bat FB outs/RH bat outs:   51/188 = 27.1% RH batter FB outs
62.  RH bat SL outs/RH bat outs:   51/188 = 27.1% RH batter SL outs
63.  RH bat SC outs/RH bat outs:   86/188 = 45.7% RH batter SC outs
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64.  FB strikeouts/strikeouts:      18/92 = 19.6% fastball strikeouts
65.  SL strikeouts/strikeouts:       6/92 =  6.5% slider strikeouts
66.  SC strikeouts/strikeouts:      68/92 = 73.9% screwball strikeouts
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67.  LH bat FB Ks/LH bat Ks:       6/37 = 16.2% LH batter FB Ks
68.  LH bat SL Ks/LH bat Ks:       2/37 =  5.4% LH batter SL Ks
69.  LH bat SC Ks/LH bat Ks:      29/37 = 78.4% LH batter SC Ks
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70.  RH bat FB Ks/RH bat Ks:      12/55 = 21.9% RH batter FB Ks
71.  RH bat SL Ks/RH bat Ks:       4/55 =  7.3% RH batter SL Ks
72.  RH bat SC Ks/RH bat Ks:      39/55 = 70.9% RH batter SC Ks
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     From this analysis, I pulled out several valuable findings:

1.   In 1971&2, I threw 32.9% and 30.0% fastballs, respectively.
2.   In 1971&2, I threw 67.0% and 64.4% fastball strikes, respectively.
3.   In 1971&2, I threw 37.6% and 20.6% sliders, respectively.
4.   In 1971&2, I threw 65.2% slider strikes and 69.7% slider strikes, respectively.
5.   In 1971&2, I threw 29.5% and 49.4% screwballs, respectively.
6.   In 1971&2, I threw 53.8% and 62.9% screwball strikes, respectively.
7.   In 1971&2, extra base hits comprised 31.3% and 17.1% of the hits, respectively.
8.   In 1971&2, left-handed hitters batted .231 and .171, respectively.
9.   In 1971&2, right-handed hitters batted .259 and .219, respectively.

     I decreased my fastball pitch selection 2.9%.   I decreased my slider pitch selection 17.0%.   I increased my screwball percentage 19.9%.   I increased my screwball strike percentage 9.1%.   I decreased my extra base hit percentage 12.2%.   I decreased left-handed hitter batting average fifty points.   I decreased right-handed hitter batting average forty points.   I increased the percentage of struck out batters struck out with screwballs 31.3%.   Clearly, the technique adjustments I made with my screwball generated positive results.

         c.   My 1973 Major League Season

     I expected to continue my 1972 pitching success during 1973.   However, National League hitters planned otherwise.   Hitters anticipated my screwball and hit it hard.   Fortunately, I adjusted.   However, I needed pitching room.   After Montreal Expo field Manager Gene Mauch and I discussed the situation, Gene gave me pitching room.   As a result, we turned 1973 into another successful season.

     Throughout my 1973 Montreal Expo season, I again carefully recorded every pitch that I threw to every hitter.   In 92 games, I pitched 179 innings, walked 75 hitters, gave up 163 hits, struck out 124 for a 2.66 earned run average.   From this game-by-game raw data, I compiled my 1973 report.

                                                        1973 Report
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                       General Information
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01.  Batters/innings:              748/177.7 = 4.21 batters per inning
02.  Pitches/innings:             2673/177.7 = 15.0 pitches per inning
03.  LH batters/batters:             325/748 = 43.4% LH batters
04.  RH batters/batters:             423/748 = 56.6% RH batters
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                   General Pitch-Type Information
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05.  Fastballs/pitches:            1031/2673 = 38.6% fastballs
06.  Sliders/pitches:               581/2673 = 21.7% sliders
07.  Screwballs/pitches:           1061/2673 = 39.7% screwballs
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08.  Fastball strikes/fastballs:   702/1031 = 68.1% fastball strikes
09.  LH bat FB strikes/LH bat FB:   304/441 = 68.9% LH batter FB strikes
10.  RH bat FB strikes/RH bat FB:  398/590 = 67.5% RH batter FB strikes
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11.  Slider strikes/sliders:       378/581 = 65.1% slider strikes
12.  LH bat SL strikes/LH bat SL:  137/205 = 66.8% LH batter SL strikes
13.  RH bat SL strikes/RH bat SL:  241/376 = 64.1% RH batter SL strikes
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14.  Screwball strikes/screwball: 222/1061 = 58.6% screwball strikes
15.  LH bat SC strikes/LH bat SC:  299/516 = 57.9% LH batter SC strikes
16.  RH bat SC strikes/RH bat SC:  322/545 = 59.1% RH batter SC strikes
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     Left and Right-Handed Batter By Pitch-Type Hit Result Information
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17.  Fastball singles/singles:         39/126 = 30.9% fastball singles
18.  Slider singles/singles:           36/126 = 28.6% slider singles
19.  Screwball singles/singles:        51/126 = 40.5% screwball singles
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20.  LH bat FB singles/LH bat singles:  11/55 = 20.0% LH bat FB singles
21.  LH bat SL singles/LH bat singles:  15/55 = 27.3% LH bat SL singles
22.  LH bat SC singles/LH bat singles:  29/55 = 52.7% LH bat SC singles
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23.  RH bat FB singles/RH bat singles:  28/71 = 39.4% RH bat FB singles
24.  RH bat SL singles/RH bat singles:  21/71 = 29.6% RH bat SL singles
25.  RH bat SC singles/RH bat singles:  22/71 = 31.0% RH bat SC singles
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26.  Extra base hits/hits:             30/155 = 19.4% Extra base hits
27.  LH bat EBH/LH bat hits:            10/65 = 15.4% LH bat EBH
28.  RH bat EBH/RH bat hits:            19/90 = 21.1% RH bat EBH
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29.  Fastball extra base hits/EBH:      13/29 = 44.8% Fastball EBH
30.  Slider extra base hits/EBH:         8/29 = 27.6% Slider EBH
31.  Screwball extra base hits/EBH:      8/29 = 27.6% Screwball EBH
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32.  LH bat FB EBH/LH bat EBH:           6/10 = 60.0% LH bat FB EBH
33.  LH bat SL EBH/LH bat EBH:           1/10 = 10.0% LH bat SL EBH
34.  LH bat SC EBH/LH bat EBH:           3/10 = 30.0% LH bat SC EBH
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35.  RH bat FB EBH/RH bat EBH:           7/19 = 36.8% RH bat FB EBH
36.  RH bat SL EBH/RH bat EBH:           7/19 = 36.8% RH bat SL EBH
37.  RH bat SC EBH/RH bat EBH:           5/19 = 26.3% RH bat SC EBH
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   Left and Right-Handed Batter By Pitch-Type Non-Hit Result Information
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38.  Base on Balls/Batters:         62/748 = 08.3% Base on Balls
39.  LH bat Base on Balls/LH bat:   23/325 = 07.1% LH bat Base on Balls
40.  RH bat Base on Balls/RH bat:   39/423 = 09.2% RH bat Base on Balls
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41.  Int Base on Balls/Batters:     10/748 = 01.34% Int Base on Balls
42.  LH bat IBB/LH bat:              3/325 = 00.92% LH bat IBB
43.  RH bat IBB/RH bat:              7/423 = 01.65% RH bat IBB
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44.  Hit By Pitch/Batters:           4/748 = 00.53% Hit By Pitch
45.  LH bat HBP/LH bat:              1/325 = 00.31% LH bat HBP
46.  RH bat HBP/RH bat:              3/423 = 00.71% RH bat HBP
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47.  Sac Bunt/Batters:              14/748 = 01.87% Sac Bunt
48.  LH bat Sac Bunt/LH bat:         6/325 = 01.85% LH bat Sac Bunt
49.  RH bat Sac Bunt/RH bat:         8/423 = 01.89% RH bat Sac Bunt
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50.  Sac Fly/Batters:                5/748 = 00.67% Sac Fly
51.  LH bat Sac Fly/LH bat:          2/325 = 00.62% LH bat Sac Fly
52.  RH bat Sac Fly/RH bat:          3/423 = 00.71% RH bat Sac Fly
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             Left and Right-Handed Batter Batting Averages
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53.  LH bat hits/LH official AB:    65/290 = .224 LH batting average
54.  RH bat hits/RH official AB:    90/363 = .248 RH batting average
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                        Pitch-Type Success Results
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55.  FB outs/outs:                 193/498 = 38.8% fastball outs
56.  SL outs/outs:                 129/498 = 25.9% slider outs
57.  SC outs/outs:                 176/498 = 35.3% screwball outs
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58.  LH bat FB outs/LH bat outs:    82/223 = 36.8% LH batter FB outs
59.  LH bat SL outs/LH bat outs:    47/223 = 21.1% LH batter SL outs
60.  LH bat SC outs/LH bat outs:    94/223 = 42.2% LH batter SC outs
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61.  RH bat FB outs/RH bat outs:   111/275 = 40.4% RH batter FB outs
62.  RH bat SL outs/RH bat outs:    82/275 = 29.8% RH batter SL outs
63.  RH bat SC outs/RH bat outs:    82/275 = 29.8% RH batter SC outs
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64.  FB strikeouts/strikeouts:      37/120 = 30.8% FB strikeouts
65.  SL strikeouts/strikeouts:      19/120 = 15.8% SL strikeouts
66.  SC strikeouts/strikeouts:      64/120 = 53.3% SC strikeouts
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67.  LH bat FB Ks/LH bat Ks:       18/56 = 32.1% LH batter FB Ks
68.  LH bat SL Ks/LH bat Ks:        8/56 = 14.3% LH batter SL Ks
69.  LH bat SC Ks/LH bat Ks:       30/56 = 53.6% LH batter SC Ks
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70.  RH bat FB Ks/RH bat Ks:       19/64 = 29.7% RH batter FB Ks
71.  RH bat SL Ks/RH bat Ks:       11/64 = 17.2% RH batter SL Ks
72.  RH bat SC Ks/RH bat Ks:       34/64 = 53.1% RH batter SC Ks
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     From this analysis, I pulled out several valuable findings:

1.   In 1971,2&3, I threw 32.9%, 30.0% and 38.6% fastballs, respectively.
2.   In 1971,2&3, I threw 67.0%, 64.4% and 68.1% fastball strikes, respectively.
3.   In 1971,2&3, I threw 37.6%, 20.6% and 21.7% sliders, respectively.
4.   In 1971,2&3, I threw 65.2%, 69.7% and 65.1% slider strikes, respectively.
5.   In 1971,2&3, I threw 29.5%, 49.4% and 39.7% screwballs, respectively.
6.   In 1971,2&3, I threw 53.8%, 62.9% and 58.6% screwball strikes, respectively.
7.   In 1971,2&3, extra base hits comprised 31.3%, 17.1% and 19.4% of all hits, respectively.
8.   In 1971,2&3, left-handed hitters batted .231, .171 and .224, respectively.
9.   In 1971,2&3, right-handed hitters batted .259, .219 and .248, respectively.

     I increased my fastball pitch selection percentage 8.6%.   I increased my slider pitch selection 1.1%.   I decreased my screwball pitch selection percentage 9.7%.   Left-handed hitters increased their batting average fifty-three points.   Right-handed hitters increased their batting average twenty-nine points.   I struck out 25.6% fewer struck out hitter with screwballs.   While hitters significantly increased their batting averages, because I kept my extra base hit percentage low, I still succeeded.

         d.   My 1974 Major League Season

     During the 1973 off-season, the Montreal Expos traded me to the Los Angeles Dodgers.   During April 1974, I permitted too many inherited baserunners to score.   Fortunately, after Walter Alston and I talked, he gave me more pitching room.   As a result, we turned 1974 into another successful season.

     Throughout my 1974 Los Angeles Dodgers season, I again carefully recorded every pitch that I threw to every hitter.   In 106 games, I pitched 208 innings, walked 56 hitters, gave up 191 hits, struck out 143 for a 2.42 earned run average.   I included my 1974 National League Championship Series and my 1974 World Series statistics.   From this game-by-game raw data, I compiled my 1974 report.

                                                        1974 Report
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                        General Information
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01.  Batters/innings:            900/219.2 = 4.10 batters per inning
02.  Pitches/innings:           2971/219.2 = 13.52 pitches per inning
03.  LH batters/batters:           406/900 = 45.1% LH batters
04.  RH batters/batters:           494/900 = 54.9% RH batters
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                   General Pitch-Type Information
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05.  Fastballs/pitches:          1180/2971 = 39.7% fastballs
06.  Sliders/pitches:             663/2971 = 22.3% sliders
07.  Screwballs/pitches:         1128/2971 = 38.0% screwballs
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08.  Fastball strikes/fastballs:  856/1180 = 72.5% fastball strikes
09.  LH bat FB strikes/LH bat FB:  337/479 = 70.4% LH batter FB strikes
10.  RH bat FB strikes/RH bat FB:  519/701 = 74.0% RH batter FB strikes
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11.  Slider strikes/sliders:       465/663 = 70.1% slider strikes
12.  LH bat SL strikes/LH bat SL:  237/336 = 70.5% LH batter SL strikes
13.  RH bat SL strikes/RH bat SL:  228/327 = 69.7% RH batter SL strikes
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14.  Screwball strikes/screwball: 692/1128 = 61.3% screwball strikes
15.  LH bat SC strikes/LH bat SC:  337/549 = 61.4% LH batter SC strikes
16.  RH bat SC strikes/RH bat SC:  355/579 = 61.3% RH batter SC strikes
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     Left and Right-Handed Batter By Pitch-Type Hit Result Information
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17.  Fastball singles/singles:         71/158 = 44.9% Fastball singles
18.  Slider singles/singles:           39/158 = 24.7% Slider singles
19.  Screwball singles/singles:        48/158 = 30.4% Screwball singles
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20.  LH bat FB singles/LH bat singles:  16/56 = 28.6% LH bat FB singles
21.  LH bat SL singles/LH bat singles:  19/56 = 33.9% LH bat SL singles
22.  LH bat SC singles/LH bat singles:  21/56 = 37.5% LH bat SC singles
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23.  RH bat FB singles/RH bat singles: 55/102 = 53.9% RH bat FB singles
24.  RH bat SL singles/RH bat singles: 20/102 = 19.6% RH bat SL singles
25.  RH bat SC singles/RH bat singles: 27/102 = 26.5% RH bat SC singles
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26.  Extra base hits/hits:              36/194 = 18.6% Extra base hits
27.  LH bat EBH/LH bat hits:             22/78 = 28.2% LH bat EBH
28.  RH bat EBH/RH bat hits:            14/116 = 12.1% RH bat EBH
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29.  Fastball extra base hits/EBH:       19/36 = 52.8% Fastball EBH
30.  Slider extra base hits/EBH:          7/36 = 19.4% Slider EBH
31.  Screwball extra base hits/hits:     10/36 = 27.8% Screwball EBH
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32.  LH bat FB EBH/LH bat EBH:            9/22 = 40.9% LH bat FB EBH
33.  LH bat SL EBH/LH bat EBH:            7/22 = 31.8% LH bat SL EBH
34.  LH bat SC EBH/LH bat EBH:            6/22 = 27.3% LH bat SC EBH
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35.  RH bat FB EBH/RH bat EBH:           10/14 = 71.4% RH bat FB EBH
36.  RH bat SL EBH/RH bat EBH:            0/14 = 00.0% RH bat SL EBH
37.  RH bat SC EBH/RH bat EBH:            4/14 = 28.6% RH bat SC EBH
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   Left and Right-Handed Batter By Pitch-Type Non-Hit Result Information
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38.  Base on Balls/Batters:        56/900 = 06.2% Base on Balls
39.  LH bat Base on Balls/LH bat:  31/406 = 07.6% LH bat Base on Balls
40.  RH bat Base on Balls/RH bat:  25/494 = 05.1% RH bat Base on Balls
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41.  Int Base of Balls/Batters:     1/900 = 00.11% Int Base on Balls
42.  LH bat IBB/LH bat:             1/406 = 00.25% LH bat IBB
43.  RH bat IBB/RH bat:             0/494 = 00.00% RH bat IBB
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44.  Hit By Pitch/Batters:          1/900 = 00.11% Hit By Pitch
45.  LH bat HBP/LH bat:             0/406 = 00.00% LH bat HBP
46.  RH bat HBP/RH bat:             1/494 = 00.20% RH bat HBP
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47.  Sac Bunt/Batters:             20/900 = 02.2% Sac Bunts
48.  LH bat Sac Bunt/LH bat:        6/406 = 01.5% LH bat Sac Bunts
49.  RH bat Sac Bunt/RH bat:       14/494 = 02.8% RH bat Sac Bunts
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50.  Sac Fly/Batters:               6/900 = 00.67% Sac Flys
51.  LH bat Sac Fly/LH bat:         3/406 = 00.74% LH bat Sac Flys
52.  RH bat Sac Fly/RH bat:         3/494 = 00.61% RH bat Sac Flys
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             Left and Right-Handed Batter Batting Averages
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53.  LH bat hits/LH official AB:   78/365 = .214 LH batting average
54.  RH bat hits/RH official AB:  116/451 = .257 RH batting average
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                        Pitch-type Success Results
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55.  FB outs/outs:                276/643 = 42.9% fastball outs
56.  SL outs/outs:                143/643 = 22.2% slider outs
57.  SC outs/outs:                224/643 = 34.8% screwball outs
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58.  LH bat FB outs/LH bat outs:  116/293 = 39.6% LH batter FB outs
59.  LH bat SL outs/LH bat outs:   60/293 = 20.5% LH batter SL outs
60.  LH bat SC outs/LH bat outs:  117/293 = 39.9% LH batter SC outs
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61.  RH bat FB outs/RH bat outs:  160/350 = 45.7% RH batter FB outs
62.  RH bat SL outs/RH bat outs:   83/350 = 23.7% RH batter SL outs
63.  RH bat SC outs/RH bat outs:  107/350 = 30.6% RH batter SC outs
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64.  FB strikeouts/strikeouts:     70/159 = 44.0% FB strikeouts
65.  SL strikeouts/strikeouts:     12/159 =  7.4% SL strikeouts
66.  SC strikeouts/strikeouts:     77/159 = 48.4% SC strikeouts
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67.  LH bat FB Ks/LH bat Ks:      35/73 = 47.9% LH batter FB Ks
68.  LH bat SL Ks/LH bat Ks:       5/73 = 6.8% LH batter SL Ks
69.  LH bat SC Ks/LH bat Ks:      33/73 = 45.2% LH batter SC Ks
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70.  RH bat FB Ks/RH bat Ks:      35/86 = 40.7% RH batter FB Ks
71.  RH bat SL Ks/RH bat Ks:       7/86 = 8.1% RH batter SL Ks
72.  RH bat SC Ks/RH bat Ks:      44/86 = 51.2% RH batter SC Ks
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     In 1970, I pitched about one-half a season of National League baseballs.   In 1971, I pitched my first full year of National League baseball.   I had modest success.   After my 1971 season, I adjusted my screwball force application technique.   Therefore, in 1972, I knew the National League hitters, but they did not know the new me.   I surprised them.   I think that the results demonstrate that.

     In 1973 and 1974, the National League hitters knew me and I knew them.   I did not surprise them and they did not surprise me.   Therefore, I submit that 1973 and 1974 represent a true reflection of my ability.

     When viewed with the preceding insight, the following year-by-year comparisons provide a study of the evolution of a major league pitcher and the pitch sequence adjustments I had to make.

1.   In 1971,2,3&4, I threw 32.9%, 30.0%, 38.6% and 39.7% fastballs, respectively.
2.   In 1971,2,3&4, I threw 67.0%, 64.4%, 68.1% and 72.5% fastball strikes, respectively.

     Every major league hitter wants to hit fastballs.   Therefore, in my 1972 breakout year, I threw only 30.0% fastballs.   In 1974, I threw almost 40% fastballs.   In my 1972 breakout year, I threw 64.4% of my fastballs for strikes.   In 1974, I threw 72.5% of my fastballs for strikes.   When you know that hitters are not anticipating fastballs, it is easier to throw fastballs for strikes.

3.   In 1971,2,3&4, I threw 37.6%, 20.6%, 21.7% and 22.3% sliders, respectively.
4.   In 1971,2,3&4, I threw 65.2%, 69.7%, 65.1% and 70.1% slider strikes, respectively.
5.   In 1971,2,3&4, I threw 29.5%, 49.4%, 39.7% and 38.0% screwballs, respectively.
6.   In 1971,2,3&4, I threw 53.8%, 62.9%, 58.6% and 61.3% screwball strikes, respectively.

     In 1971, I could not throw my screwballs for strikes frequently enough to throw screwballs in non-fastball pitch counts (53.8%).   Therefore, I threw 37.6% sliders.   In my 1972 breakout year, I reduced my sliders to 20.6% because I could throw my screwballs for strikes (62.9%).   In 1973 and 1974, my slider percentage settled at about 22% and my screwball percentage settled at about 39%.   Interestingly, in 1974, because hitters anticipated screwballs, I increased my slider strike percentage to 70.1%.   After 1971, my screwball strike percentage settled at about 60%.   I blame the tightly-wound Haiti-sewn baseballs for the minor reduction in my 1973 screwball strike percentage.

7.   In 1971,2,3&4, extra base hits comprised 31.3%, 17.1%, 19.4% and 18.6% of hits, respectively.

     In 1971, 31.3% of the hits that I gave up were for extra bases.   Extra base hits permit baserunners to score from first base or get to third base from which they can score on without hits.   In 1972, 1973 and 1974, only 18% of the hits that I gave up were for extra bases.   By keeping the extra base hit percentage low, I reduced the runs I gave up and made hitters get more hits in order to score runs.

8.   In 1971,2,3&4, left-handed hitters batted .231, .171, .224 and .214, respectively.
9.   In 1971,2,3&4, right-handed hitters batted .259, .219, .248 and .257, respectively.

     In 1972, I surprised left and right-handed hitters and they batted only .171 and .219, respectively against me.   However, after they knew about my new screwball efficiency, left and right-handed hitters increased their batting averages over forty points each with right-handed hitters batting about forty points higher than left-handed hitters.   Clearly, I needed to get right-handed batters out easier.

     I needed to know more specific details about the four types of hitters.   I needed to know what pitches I threw in what sequence to the four types of hitters that succeeded.   However, I could not continue to study this data by hand.   I needed a faster method.



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